It has distinctive, 4-sided winged stems and gray platy bark. Populations are more scattered outside the core area, and the edges of its known distribution range north to Ontario, south to northern Louisiana, west to Colorado, and east to Massachusetts. (black ash), and F. quadrangulata Michx. , Adults prefer to lay eggs on open grown or stressed ash but readily lay eggs on healthy trees amongst other tree species. japonica, Fraxinus nigra (Black ash), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Red ash),  Damage occurs in infested trees by larval feeding. This is an upland species that typically grows 50-75’ tall with a narrow, irregularly rounded crown. The emerald ash borer has killed millions of ash trees in the states of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois and Indiana! Ash species attacked by emerald ash borer include green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), white (F. americana), black (F. nigra), and blue (F. quadrangulata), as well as horticul-tural cultivars of these species. Larval feeding between trees. Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata), a Wisconsin Threatened plant, is found in rich upland hardwoods, often with dolomite near the surface. The females of these wasps hunt other jewel beetles and emerald ash borer if it is present. The Ash or Fraxinus genus of 45-65 species of mostly medium to large deciduous trees. Dinotefuran and imidacloprid are systemic (i.e., incorporated into the tree) and remain effective for one to three years depending on the product. Early Americans made a blue dye from the inner bark, hence the common name. Urban ash are typically replaced with non-ash species such as maple, oak, or linden to limit food sources. Introduction . Favoring instead a diversity in species helps keep urban forests healthy.  Previous generations created monocultures by planting ash trees in an overabundance, a factor in the extent of the devastation caused by the emerald ash borer.  Ash trees are primarily treated by direct injection into the tree or soil drench.  In both North America and Europe, the loss of ash from an ecosystem can result in increased numbers of invasive plants, changes in soil nutrients, and effects on species that feed on ash. 2006. ˜ey are: white ash (Fraxinus americana), black ash (Fraxinus nigra), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica - also called red ash), pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda) and blue ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata). Until recently, we have been telling you that blue ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata, appears to be resistant to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  Larvae can also survive high heat up to 53 °C (127 °F). The lilac borer is the main pest problem with blue ash.  Although not recorded from the European Union as of 2019, it has already spread to far eastern Ukraine from neighboring Russia. Predictions of ash mortality in infested areas would allow managers to plan and budget for hazard tree removal, restoration activities, and pre-emptive harvests. French priest and naturalist Armand David collected a specimen of the species during one of his trips through imperial China in the 1860s and 1870s. A conceptual framework designed to protect and preserve ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) Blooming occurs throughout June; fruiting occurs early July through late August. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is less susceptible to emerald ash borer infestationsin theforest than otherspecies of NorthAmerican ash. , Sometimes trees are girdled to act as trap trees to monitor for emerald ash borer. It is the only eastern ash with square twigs. It was first discovered in the U. S. (southeastern Michigan) in 2002.  Before emerald ash borer was found in North America, very little was known about the insect in its native range aside from a short description of life-history traits and taxonomic descriptions, which resulted in focused research on its biology in North America. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), also known by the acronym EAB, is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to north-eastern Asia that feeds on ash species. In China, it infests native F. chinensis, F. mandshurica, and F. rhynchophylla; in Japan it also infests F. japonica and F. lanuginosa. Leaves turn pale and usually dull yellow in fall.  Males hover around trees, locate females by visual cues, and drop directly onto the female to mate. The Plants Database includes the following 22 species of Fraxinus . Parks Canada Agency. Fraxinus in Michigan and surrounding areas are being devastated by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an Asian insect first discovered in North America in southeastern Michigan in 2002. Eastern U.S. Habitat: Grows on Rocky Bluffs. Corky-winged young twigs are distinctively four-sided, thus giving rise to another common name of winged ash. 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